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英语系本科生翻译练习之典型错误概述
  
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摘要:The title of the dissertation clearly reveals that the main object is to study thetranslation errors of English majors, find the causes for them, and give some copingstrategies.
Chapter One Introduction
 
1.1 Background of the Research
Starting from 1991 the Test for English Majors Band 8 (TEM-8) has undergone 22years' practice. It is a criterion-Referenced proficiency test,and its objects are based on theNational Teaching Syllabus. (Zou Shen,1997: 12) TEM-8 has received wide recognitionfrom colleges and universities and the whole society as well. It is held every springtowards the end of the English majors' BA (Bachelor of Arts) program. This test isdesigned by the testing center in Shanghai International Studies University under thesupervision of the National Ministry of Education. The test candidates consist of Englishmajors. If they fail in the first test, they will have only one more chance to make up thistest. And it is used to evaluate an English major graduate's competence. To a certain extent,the TEM-8 certificate for an English major student is very important and useful; it mayinfluence his or her career or further education. For many employers, they tend to see acompetent English major graduate as an equivalent to a holder of the certificate of TEM-8.Many Hong Kong universities, such as Hong Kong Baptist University, require that theapplicants from Mainland China have a TEM-8 certificate when they apply for the MA(Master of Arts) program of English literature or English linguistics. Many universities inMainland China also require that postgraduates of English major should have a TEM-8certificate to apply for their graduate degree's diploma.
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1.2 Research purpose and significance
The title of the dissertation clearly reveals that the main object is to study thetranslation errors of English majors, find the causes for them, and give some copingstrategies. It will adopt textual analysis as the basic method in the process of researching.The author of this thesis has collected some translation exercises of third-year Englishmajors from Yangtze University and selected some cases to analyze. Inductive method andcomparative analysis will be widely used in this thesis.From the linguistic point of view,error is defined as "a linguistic form or combinationof forms which, in the same context or in the similar conditions of production,would notbe produced by the native speakers." (Lennon,1991: 35) Or it can be interpreted as theviolation of target language norms. In the field of applied linguistics,many scholars stressthe significance of learners' errors. The father of Error Analysis (EA),Corder (1967) has^ commented in his influential article that learners' errors are significant in three differentrespects. First,it is helpful for the teachers to know how much the students have learnt andhow much they need to improve, if a systematic analysis is undertaken. Second,it isinformative to the researchers, because learners' errors provide an insight into theirlanguage learning process, and reveal the stages of acquisition, and the strategies thatlearners use to learn a target language. Third, it is significant to the learners themselves,because error commitment is an inevitable feature of their learning, and even can beregarded as one of the motives the learners use in order to make progress. In fact,translation errors occur frequently in English majors' practices, and many stu#nts thinkthat translation is extremely difficult in TEM-8. Therefore, in this thesis,guided by EA, theauthor focuses on translation errors and their causes,tries to employ EA to explore thecauses of translation errors and searches for the coping strategies in the hope that it canhelp students to improve translation ability and make forther improvement in translationteaching and learning.
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Chapter Two Literature Review
 
2.1 A Brief History of Translation Teaching in China
According to Mu Lei (1999: 35),"Modern systems of foreign language instructionin China began in 1862" when the first foreign school — Tongwenguan InterpretersCollege was set up by the Qing Government. Translators were trained there for the mainpurpose of serving the Chinese merchants in doing business with foreigners. From thenon, translation teaching (to be exact, teaching translation) was used as a means ofteaching foreign languages and it was not until 1978 that translation became anindependent course offered to university or college students, namely translation teachingnowadays. In the year 1902, Tongwenguan Interpreters College was incorporated intoMetropolitan College as the Translation Department. This is generally regarded as thebeginning of translation education in institutions of higher learning in China.As early as 1944,Yan'an Foreign Languages School began to offer courses intraining translators and interpreters for political, military and foreign affairs. Fu Ke (1989)records its teaching programs, teaching methods and existing problems in his book OnForeign Languages Teaching. According to Mu Lei (1999: 8), they are "the earliest andmost elaborate records on translation teaching." The teaching practice in this period hasaccumulated useful experiences and paved the road for later translation teaching in China.Between 1949 and 1978, courses in translation were offered in some foreign languagesinstitutions and departments in the country, including the present Guangdong Universityof Foreign Studies, Tianjin Foreign Studies University, Dalian University of ForeignLanguages. But at the same time translation was mainly taken as an exercise to learn aforeign language, not as an independent course for the students.
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2.2 Views on Translation Error Studies
Melie and Albir (2002; 11-15) hold that the analysis of translation errors should beconducted from two aspects: lack of knowledge and inadequate application orassimilation of the principles governing translation. However, Liao Baisen (2010)believes that the analysis of translation errors is closely related to the process oftranslation, so he suggests that the process-oriented approach, such as Gile,s sequentialmodel of translation, be more preferable to analyze translation errors. According to Gile'smodel (1994),the process of translation is divided into two stages: comprehension andreformulation. At the first stage of comprehension, translators first employ their firstlanguage ability and background knowledge to establish a meaning hypothesis,temporarily assigning a meaning to the part of the text being worked on,and then checkthe meaning hypothesis for fidelity and linguistic acceptability.
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework........... 10
3.1 Definitions.......... 10
3.2 Error Analysis as the Theoretical Basis.......... 12
3.2.1 A Brief Introduction to Error Analysis (EA).......... 12
3.2.2 Procedures of Error Analysis ..........13
ChapterFour An Overview of Translation Teaching.......... 16
4.1 Translation Skill Requirements .......... 16
4.2 Development and Present Situation .......... 16
4.2.1 Definition of Translation Teaching.......... 16
4.2.2 Perspectives on Translation Teaching.......... 17
4.2.3 Problems in Translation Teaching.......... 19
4.3 Translation Competence.......... 20
4.4 Summary.......... 23
Chapter Five EA-based Translation Error Analysis.......... 25
5.1 Analysis of Errors in Students' Translation Practices.......... 25
5.2 Typical Errors in Students' Translation Practices.......... 40
5.3 Causes of Errors in Students' Translation Practices.......... 44
5.4 Suggestions for Handling the Problems..........     47
 
Chapter Five EA-based Translation Error Analysis
 
This section is a study of errors in English majors' translation practice on the basisof error analysis (EA). The author of this thesis has collected some translations by thethird-year students of English major at Yangtze University. The source texts are theauthentic translation materials from past TEM-8. Specifically,she has selected foursource texts from TEM-8, among which the source texts of the 1999 and 2003 TEM-8are Chinese texts and the source texts of the 1998 and 1999 of TEM-8 are English texts.Each source text is provided with four translations by different students. Throughanalysis of the errors in these students’ translations,this chapter is to find what errors thestudents are most likely to make, and the causes for their errors as well. Finally, the author of this thesis will put forward some useful coping strategies according to otherresearchers' achievements and the author's own reflections. We hope that our study canhelp the students better their translation competence in order to improve the quality oftranslation.
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Conclusion
 
Since TEM-8 is becoming more and more important, students and teachers pay moreattention to it. According to students' feedback and our investigation, translation is a bigdifficult for students to do TEM-8. Therefore,this thesis turns to the study of errors in thetranslation exercises concerning authentic TEM-8 translation materials and put forwardsome coping strategies, hoping that it can give English major students a little help in theirtranslation competence improvements. However, there are some limitations in the presentstudy. Although the author has conducted the present research on errors in the translationexercises and analyzed some typical problems,putting forward some constructivesuggestions for teachers and students, there are still some limitations and problems thatneed to be mentioned. The selected examples might not be enough for analysis of theproblems, and the analyses are not detailed. The other limitation of the study is that thisthesis mainly discusses errors in the translation exercises, thus some other aspects areneglected, such as translation teaching, translation exercise design, the coursearrangement and the time of translation class every semester, and so on. They are allcalled for further study and investigation. Besides,as the number of examples is notenough to get more usefiil problems, those suggestions given abov are not tooconstructive and may be only helpful to those students who are strongly willing to learntranslation well but of little help to lazy students.
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Reference (omitted)
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