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Study on the properties of fires following the Great East Ja
  
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摘要:东日本大地震后的火灾特性研究是一个精选的留学生论文范文,给留学生论文提供了一个写作的规范,通过阅读本文可以提高留学生朋友的写作能力。
Study on the properties of fires following the Great East Japan earthquake
东日本大地震后的火灾特性研究
 
1. Introduction
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, Japan, also called the Great East Jap an Earthquake, was an undersea trench earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0 that occurred at 14:46:18 on 11 March, 2011. The hypocenter was at 38.11N and142.91E, approximately at 130 km ESE of the Oshika Peninsula in Miyagi Prefecture and at 24 km in depth. Fig. 1 shows the epicenter and the distribution of the seismic intensity induced across the Japanese archipelago [1]. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves on the coasts of the prefectures of the Tohoku area and strong shaking in extensive areas of eastern Japan, causing the most devastating loss due to a natural disaster since the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923.Fig. 2 shows the heights of the tsunami waves along the coast of Japan[2]. The Fire and Disaster Management Agency has confirmed 15,898 deaths, 6115 people injured and 3917 people missing as well as 117,652 buildings completely destroyed and 178,200 buildings severely damaged across 18 prefectures, all of which was caused mainly by the tsunami waves rather than the shaking [3].
 
1 引言
2011地震的东北,日本太平洋海岸,也被称为东日本大地震,是一个具有9级,发生在11日14:46:18海底海沟地震,2011。震源在38.11n and142.91e,大约在牡鹿半岛130公里ESE在宫城县,在24公里的深度。图1显示了震中和诱导整个日本列岛[ 1 ]地震烈度分布。地震引发的破坏性极强的海啸在日本东部广大地区的东北地区和强烈的摇晃州海岸,由于自然灾害造成的损失最为惨重的1923.fig关东大地震以来。2显示的海啸波沿日本海岸的高度[ 2 ]。火灾与灾害管理机构已经确认15898人死亡,6115人受伤,3917人失踪,以及117652和178200的建筑被完全摧毁建筑物严重受损的18个县,这主要是由于海啸而不是摇[ 3 ]。
 
A number of fires occurred following the earthquake, causing significant damage, although these did not receive as much attention because the damage caused by the tsunami waves was so dreadful. Strong earthquakes are often followed by fires, and ample records exist on fires associated with earthquakes in the past, e.g., the fires following the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 and the Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995.
地震后发生了火灾,造成重大损失的,虽然这并没有得到太多的关注,因为海啸造成的损害是如此可怕。强地震之后通常会有火灾,和充足的记录存在于过去,例如地震有关的火灾,在关东大地震和阪神大地震1923 1995火灾。
 
Such records are mostly for inland earthquakes, and the records of fires following ocean trench earthquakes are relatively poor, although the occur-rences of some fires can be confirmed from brief descriptions. The reason for this deficiency is not clear. In the case of these types of earthquakes, with extremely large amounts of building damage, the damage caused by fires, even if serious, may have been overshadowed by the much more extensive damage caused by tsunami waves. For example, the Genroku Earthquake in 1703 and the Ansei Earthquake in 1854 in the Edo period were both huge earthquakes of ocean plate origin that caused devastating damages over extensive regions in Japan, but few descriptions of fires are found in the documents recording the earthquakes, even though some fires obviously occurred [4]. More recently, earth-quakes of the same type, the Toh-Nan-Kai (East-South Sea) Earthquake and the Nan-Kai Earthquake, occurred successively in 1944 and 1946, causing significant damage to western Japan. Again, we do not know much about the fires following these  earthquakes. In these cases, however, Japan was in the midst of a national crisis due to war. The damages by the earthquakes may have been looked on as insignificant compared with the cata-strophic devastation caused by the war.
 
The Great East Japan Earthquake provides the first chance to make a solid investigation of the fires associated with an earth-quake of ocean plate origin. According to the Fire and Disaster Management Agency, 278 fires occurred following the earthquake across the 12 prefectures in the Tohoku and Kanto areas [3], although the number varies between reports made at the onset of the event and now because of the difficulty in grasping an accurate number in the immense turmoil following the huge tsunami disasters in the large area and because of the nuclear power plant explosion in Fukushima prefecture. Many fires of various types occurred, including conventional fires due to the shaking of buildings, industry fires, oil plant fires, fires in areas inundated by the tsunami and forest fires. The investigations of the fires are not yet complete, and therefore, this paper only reports some notable features of the fires that have been found at this time.
 
2. Distribution of fires following the earthquake
Fig. 3 shows the distribution of the fires that occurred follow-ing the earthquake [5]. The distribution appears to include two distinct groups, i.e., an inland group and a coastal group, but this is simply a reflection of the inhabited areas in the region. Never-theless, the inland fires exhibited the features of conventional earthquake fires, while some of the coastal fires exhibited some peculiar features that are specific to coastal areas. One such
feature is that many oil tanks or oil refineries that were located in coastal areas caused large fires. Another is that large-scale fires occurred in areas inundated with tsunami waves and some were accompanied by forest fires.
 
References
[1] T. Usami, Materials for Comprehensive List of Destructive Earthquakes in Japan, University of Tokyo Press, 2003.
[2] A. Sekizawa, The overview of fires following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, J. JAFSE 61 (4) (2011) 12–17. (in Japanese).
[3] T. Yamada, U. Hiroi, N. Sakamoto, Aspects of fire occurrence caused by the tsunami in urban area on the Sanriku coast, J. JAFSE 61 (4) (2011) 18–22 (in Japanese).
[4] U. Hiroi, T. Yamada, N. Sakamoto, Overview of spreading fires in Yamada, Natori and Ishinomaki areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake, J. JAFSE 61 (4) (2011) 23–28 (in Japanese).
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